What? So What? Now What?

So I was at the First-Year Experience conference in San Diego a couple of weeks ago.  There were many highlights — starting with a conference that is actually in my time zone, to my excellent walking commute —

View of the Little Italy sign in San Diego, California

Walking commute from Little Italy to the conference hotel

— to the views from the conference hotel.

View towards the harbor from the Manchester Grant Hyatt in San Diego

trust me, this wasn’t even one of the best ones

Another highlight came in a late session by Catherine Sale Green and Kevin Clarke from the University 101 program at the University of South Carolina.  I wasn’t the only OSU person at this conference (far from it).  After I got back to campus, I was helping Ruth, who coordinates our FYE, with an info session for faculty thinking of applying to teach FYS next year and she started to say “what? so what….” and I finished with “now what” – because while it was a content-rich session, that short phrase was probably the most memorable part of it.


It’s a guide to help students with reflective writing. Three simple questions to answer.

So what?

It probably won’t shock anyone to know that I find reflective writing pretty easy. It’s a reason this blog exists, and definitely a reason for the tagline. While the actual writing of some reflective documents (teaching philosophies, anyone?) kills me as dead as anyone, the how and the why of reflective writing has never been difficult for me.

Honestly, when I realized that it doesn’t come easily for every one (or even for most people) I started to feel more than a little narcissistic.  I realized that pretty quickly once I started teaching — I’d assign the kinds of reflective writing prompts I used to see in classes, and I’d get back papers where the students really struggled with trying to figure out the right answers, or what I wanted to hear, but that lacked any real reflection of their own thinking.  The problem is, when you’ve never had to (ahem) reflect on how to do something or why to do it — it’s super hard to figure out how to help people who are struggling.

What I like about these three questions is how they start with something relatively simple — description is usually straightforward — what happened, what did you do, what did you notice, what did you learn, and so forth.  But they don’t let students end there.  They push to more complex analysis — why does that thing matter?  And then they push beyond that to something equally challenging (what does it mean for you) that, if students do it successfully, will also demonstrate the value of reflection or metathinking itself.

Now what?

(Wikimedia Commons)

Well, here’s the thing – I will undoubtedly teach credit courses again and when I do I will undoubtedly assign reflective writing.  So this is going to help me there, in its intended context I have no doubt

But I also think this is a fantastic way to think about the process of analyzing and evaluating information.  We all know I don’t like checklists when it comes to teaching evaluating.  Truthfully, I’ll argue against any tool that tries to make a complex thing like evaluation simple (seriously – it’s at the top of some versions of Bloom’s! The top!)

And I’ll argue against any tool or trick that suggests you can evaluate all types of information the same way without context and without… yes… reflection, on your own needs, your own message, and your own rhetorical situation.  That’s my problem with checklists.  At best, they are useful tools to help you describe a thing.

An example — the checklist asks, “who’s the author?”  The student answers – William Ripple.  That’s descriptive, nothing more.  But think about it with all three questions.

Some rights reserved by Gouldy99 (flickr)

What?  The author of this article is William Ripple.

So what? Pushed to answer this question – the student will have to do some additional research.  They will find that William Ripple is on the faculty of OSU’s College of Forestry, and the director of the Trophic Cascades program.  He has conducted original research and authored or co-authored dozens of articles examining the role of large predators in ecological communities.

Now what? This question pushes the student to consider their own needs — what they’re trying to say, who they’re trying to convince and what type of evidence that audience will find convincing.

Now, move away from that fairly obvious checklist item and let’s consider a more complicated one, bias.

I’ve linked here before to this old but still excellent post explaining why identifying bias is not evaluation.  And yet, we all know that this is still where a lot of students are in their analysis — they want facts, bias is a reason to reject a source. But bias is no different than author – identifying it, being able to describe it, that’s not evaluation.

What?  I actually think this one could be a step forward in itself — instead of just saying a source is biased, a good answer will specify what that bias is, and what the evidence for it is.

So what? This could push a student to consider how that bias affects the message/argument/ validity of the piece.

Now what? And this is the real benefit — what does this mean for me? How does this bias affect my use of the source, how will my audience read it, how might it help me/ hinder me as I communicate my message?

Now, of course, a student could answer the questions “this source is biased, that matters because I need facts, so I will throw it out and look for something that says what I already believe.”  That could still happen.  And probably will sometimes.  But I like the idea of teaching evaluation as a reflective process, grounded in a rigorous description and examination of a source.

FYE Conference – notes and links

ETA – Presentation slides (they’re image heavy, and only moderately helpful, but here they are)

Information Literacy

Learning the Ropes: How Freshmen Conduct Course Research Once they Enter College. Alison Head/ Project Information Literacy. December 2013. (PDF)

The Citation Project Pilot study. Howard, Rebecca Moore, Tanya K. Rodrigue, and Tricia C. Serviss. “Writing from Sources, Writing from Sentences.” Writing and Pedagogy 2.2 (Fall 2010): 177-192.

Rempel, H. G., Buck, S., & Deitering, A. M. (2013). Examining Student Research Choices and Processes in a Disintermediated Searching Environment. portal: Libraries and the Academy. 13(4), 363-384.

Kim, K. S., & Sin, S. C. J. (2007). Perception and selection of information sources by undergraduate students: effects of avoidant style, confidence, and personal control in problem-solving.The Journal of Academic Librarianship. 33(6), 655-665. (Elsevier paywall)


Curiosity Self-Assessment  – try it yourself!

Scoring Guide

Based on:
by Jordan A. Litman & Mark V. Pezzo (2007). In Personality and Individual Differences 43 (6): 1448–1459.
by Jordan A. Litman & Charles D. Spielberger (2003) in Journal of Personality Assessment 80 (1) (February): 75–86.
by Robert P. Collins, Jordan A. Litman & Charles D. Speilberger (2004) in Personality and Individual Differences 36 (5): 1127-1141


What we used in FYC:

WR 121 LibGuide

Science Daily


Twitter (for example: @HarvardResearch, @ResearchBlogs, @ResearchOSU)

Creating an embeddable twitter timeline (we are using the List Timeline option)

Mapping OSU Research – Google map

7 Ways to Make a Google Map Using Google Spreadsheets.  Note: ours is made by hand right now – but there might be interest in these options.

Other possibilities:

Newsmap — treemap style visualization of Google News.

Tiki-Toki — timeline generator

TimelineJS (integrated with Google Spreadsheets)

Good Library Assignments – The Outcome

So remember when I said that the 3-part Good Library Assignments brain dump was in preparation of a workshop? That was true.

And I’ve done the workshop a few times now and I’ve completed the accompanying materials.  Both of these are (obviously) intended for a faculty-librarian audience and both are entirely shareable.

There’s a LibGuide.  This was created as the “further reading” site for the workshop. It includes that information, as well as the slides and a transcript from the actual presentation.

Effective Research Assignments – LibGuide

There’s also a WordPress site where you can find sample assignments. Many of these are from Catherine Pellegrino and the awesome people at Saint Mary’s College.

Sample Assignments

Shameless begging – if you know of/ have used an activity or assignment that reflects these principles, would you share it?  I’ll totally be your best friend.

Curiosity Self-Assessment – scoring

close up of the Mars Curiosity rover

@MarsCuriosity (twitter)

So I have been told that some people have already taken the Curiosity Self Assessment linked in the last post, and I thought I should probably post an explanation of the scoring – since it’s not really very transparent.

As I said in that post, this assessment is drawn from a set of longer instruments developed and tested by Jordan Litman (and a  variety of colleagues) over the last decade or so.

There is more than one type of curiosity identified in the literature, and we decided to focus on 3 of those in this instrument:  epistemic, perceptual and interpersonal.

Epistemic curiosity is triggered by a drive to know about things — to know about concepts and ideas, and to understand how things work.  This is the type of curiosity that we think probably comes to mind first when people think of school-related work.  Some of the items on the self-assessment that point to this type of curiosity are:

    • When I see a riddle I am interested in trying to solve it.
    • I enjoy discussing abstract concepts

Perceptual curiosity is triggered by a drive to know how things feel, taste, smell, look, and sound.  Some of the items that point to this one are:

    • I enjoy trying different foods.
    • When I see new fabrics, I want to touch and feel it.

We (the general “we” here) don’t usually think about the types of questions that would include a touching or perceiving component when we think of class-related research.

Interpersonal curiosity is triggered  by a desire to know more about other people.  Some of the items connected to this type have a snooping or spying connotation to them, and others focus more on the type of curiosity that happens during direct interactions with others:

    • People open up to me about how they feel.
    • I enjoy going into other houses to see how people live.

So, what do you need to know about this self-assessment to understand your scores?

1. Well, first, it is a self-assessment.  This isn’t intended to tell you anything about other people’s curiosity – or about how your curiosity compares to other people’s.  It’s intended to get you thinking about curiosity in more complicated ways — to think about things that spark your curiosity that you might not normally think about in a classroom setting.

2. Secondly, the self-assessment is based on a four-item Likert scale — and it really, really, shouldn’t be used to compare people to each other:

4 item likert scale ranging from almost never to almost always

The scale itself is an ordinal scale, but not an interval scale.  Why should you care?  Well, think about the difference between almost never and sometimes — is it the same as the difference between sometimes and often?  Some people may answer yes to that, and some people may answer no.

To put it another way, if I answer Often to an item and you answer Almost Always that might mean that you do the thing a little more than me, that you do it a lot more than me or that we actually both do it twice a day but to me, twice a day is “often” and to you it’s “almost always.”

So – your scores can’t tell you anything about how you compare to others.  They can’t even be effectively used to identify a “type” for a class or cohort of people.

But they can tell you something about yourself.

3. Finally, when you get your scores, you are going to see them as a fraction of 40. It’s important that you don’t think about those percentages as grades.

Let’s take a hypothetical example — Nadia gets scores of 28/40 for epistemic, 30/40 for interpersonal and 21/40 for perceptual.  It’s pretty normal to look at that 30/40 and think that “that’s only 75% – I’m not very curious.”

But remember how those scales work.


So Nadia scored 30/40, which means that she answered “often” to most of the items that suggest interpersonal curiosity.  Her “low” score was about perceptual curiosity, but even there her answers averaged around the “sometimes” mark. So from this, she can infer that she is fairly broadly curious, but that her curiosity is quite likely to be sparked about questions relating other people, and about how things work.  She might look for research ideas in fields that combine these interests, like psychology.

Curiosity, Browsing & Online Environments – Further Reading

UPDATE:  And just as I went to hit post – the email came that the conference is canceled.  Oh well.  I’m posting anyway because this topic isn’t going away.


These are further reading/ exploration resources to go along with a talk that is supposed to happen at Online Northwest tomorrow.  If I sound less than confident, it is because this is the view from my front door.

view from my porch is snow

view from my porch

I live a 10 minute walk from the conference venue, and this is western Oregon, and we don’t really do snow.

I hope my doubts are misplaced, because this is routinely one of my favorite conferences and even though I am being denied the opportunity to hear some good friends speak by poor scheduling luck, I was really looking forward to the keynote.  I saw on the twitter that Andromeda won’t be able to get here, though, so things are not looking up.

In the interest of optimism, though, here’s the stuff behind this talk:

Hannah Gascho Rempel, Chad Iwertz & Anne-Marie Deitering.  Harnessing the Web to Create an Environment that Supports Curiosity, Exploration and Learning.  Online Northwest, 7 February 2014.


Curiosity Self-Assessment  – try it yourself!

Based on:
by Jordan A. Litman & Mark V. Pezzo (2007). In Personality and Individual Differences 43 (6): 1448–1459.
by Jordan A. Litman & Charles D. Spielberger (2003) in Journal of Personality Assessment 80 (1) (February): 75–86.

by Robert P. Collins, Jordan A. Litman & Charles D. Speilberger (2004) in Personality and Individual Differences 36 (5): 1127-1141


What we used in FYC:

WR 121 LibGuide

Science Daily


Twitter (for example: @HarvardResearch, @ResearchBlogs, @ResearchOSU)

Creating an embeddable twitter timeline (we are using the List Timeline option)

Mapping OSU Research – Google map

7 Ways to Make a Google Map Using Google Spreadsheets.  Note: ours is made by hand right now – but there might be interest in these options.

Other possibilities:

Newsmap — treemap style visualization of Google News.

Tiki-Toki — timeline generator

TimelineJS (integrated with Google Spreadsheets)

Information Literacy in the First-Year Experience. Updated.

Integrating Information Literacy in First-Year Student Programs

This is a resource/ additional reading page for a webcast that will be delivered on February 5, 2014.  I will be updating this post between now and then, so check back again later.


There is a growing body of research examining first-year students’ research practice and habits, and assessing the impact of information literacy instruction.

Learning the Ropes: How Freshmen Conduct Course Research Once they Enter College. Alison Head/ Project Information Literacy. December 2013. (PDF)

The Citation Project Pilot studyHoward, Rebecca Moore, Tanya K. Rodrigue, and Tricia C. Serviss. “Writing from Sources, Writing from Sentences.” Writing and Pedagogy 2.2 (Fall 2010): 177-192.

Examining Student Research Choices and Processes in a Disintermediated Searching Environment. Hannah Gascho Rempel, Stefanie Buck & Anne-Marie Deitering. portal: Librairies & the Academy. 2013.

Fortifying the Pipeline: A Quantitative Exploration of High School Factors Impacting the Information Literacy of First-Year College Students. Jennifer Fabbi. College & Research Libraries. (January 2015) (Pre-print).

Instructional Preferences of First-Year College Students with Below-Proficient Information Literacy Skills: A Focus Group Study. Don Latham & Melissa Gross. College & Research Libraries (September 2013).

Measuring the Impact of LIbrary Instruction on Freshmen Success and Persistence: A Quantitative Analysis. Jason Vance, Rachel Kirk & Justin Gardner. Communications in Information Literacy. 6:1 (2012).

The iConnected Parent. Barbara Hofer & Abigail Moore (2010). Simon & Schuster/ The Free Press.

Student Development Theory

Reflective Judgment Model (Karen Strohm Kitchener & Patricia King).

Chickering’s Vectors — Education & Identity. Arthur Chickering & Linda Reisser. Jossey-Bass, 1993.

Pascarella & Terenzini — How College Affects Students: A Third Decade of Research. Jossey-Bass, 2005.

FYE Programs

FYE Programs take many forms and can include many components. No two campuses approach the task of helping students transition to college in exactly the same way.

Summer Bridge Programs

San Diego City College

Peer Mentors

San Diego City College

Student Success Workshops & Classes

COS, CDL & LDS Courses: Monroe Community College

Student Success Conference: Delaware County Community College*

First Year Seminars & Learning Communities

Northern Virginia Community College

Learning Communities: Kapi’Olani Community College

Study Abroad Programs

FYSAE: Arcadia College

First-Year Experience Abroad: College of Charleston

Service Learning Programs

First Year Experience Service Learning Program: El Camino College

Common Reading Programs

Freshman Common Reading: Cal State Northridge

First-Year Experience Common Reading: LaGuardia Community College

Undergraduate Research Experiences

First-Year Research Experience: UMass-Amherst

Research Experiences in Biology: Franklin & Marshall College

Creative Library/FYE Partnerships

The First Year Papers — Trinity College

How Institutional Repositories Provide a Digital Compliment to the First-Year Experience. A presentation by Erin Passehl & Valerie Bagley, Western Oregon University at Online Northwest, 2012

Outreach to Parents

The Parents’ Lounge – Brigham Young University (PDF)

Parent Guide to the William Hannon Library – LMU

Some Things Parents Should Know about Armacost Library — Redlands

Embedding library information in FYE outreach materials for parents – SMU

Assignments and Learning Activities

Untold Stories: History of People of Color in Oregon.   Oregon State University.  With the help of archivist Natalia Fernandez from the OSU Libraries, students in this first-year seminar created a walking guide to the OSU campus, featuring notable locations and students.

Uncovering OSU Research. A Google Map project designed to help students visualize the knowledge creation happening around them at a research university.

University of Oregon – Documenting the First-Year Experience project.  Every year one of UO’s first-year seminar classes undertakes this project.

Cephalonian method – University of Cardiff

This is not part 2 of a post about MOOCs

So, we left off with the idea that a lot of energy in library instruction still goes to skills-based teaching focused on specific assignments and projects. 

Part 1 is here.

Today I want to develop out the idea a little further that the pressures (resource and otherwise) we’re feeling might make it difficult to continue spending this energy at the same levels.  And then I want to take it further and examine some of the reasons why the MOOC format intrigues me on its own terms.

Most academic libraries are trying to do more with less, whether less means human resources or other types of resources.

This has been true for a long time, but in many ways it’s more a more intense problem now.  Whether we’re dealing with layoffs and furloughs, or a student body that’s exploding in size without a similar explosion in resources, we’re all dealing with this situation, I think.

Here’s our situation here.  This:

Next year’s higher ed state funding levels in Oregon

Plus this:

(Especially note the growth rate during the period after the economy tanked)

To put it in specific library-instruction terms, WR 121 is our FYC class (plus also the only course required of all OSU students).  That’s where we try to meet every student with library instruction.  In the almost-10 years I’ve been here, the number of sections of WR 121 per term has grown from about 25 to about 40, give or take a few. At the same time, we have concentrated teaching (and engagement initiatives) in a department with 7 librarians, who also do other things that aren’t teaching classes. So that math is obvious, WR 121 hasn’t yet, but could easily go from one thing we do into the only thing we can do.

There is new cool stuff we teaching librarians want to do, and it’s usually resource-intensive and won’t reach all of our students.

And this the reason why that’s important.  There are things we want to do, and most of the time they’re not going to reach everyone and they’re going to take time, effort, people and sometimes money.  It could be pushing our teaching into new areas that reflect new areas of our expertise: courses or workshops focusing on things like data management, or graphic novels, or text mining.  Some librarians are teaching J-term or intersession courses, or . First-Year experience courses or seminars.  Or maybe you’re interested in pursuing new models for collaboration, or creative credentialing, or the latest pedagogical craze?

Meaningful assessment can be incredibly resource-intensive.  So many people I know are interested in pursuing complex projects like lesson study, or ethnography,or rubric development, but concerned about the resource investment they require.

And we’ve also had a number of wonderful contributions to our body of literature about pedagogy in the last few years — giving us new theoretical frameworks that push us to go deeper and more authentic in our teaching. All of this takes effort, resources, and time — time to do the teaching and also time to make it happen.

The people who are taking, and finishing, MOOCs are mostly not current students — they’re people looking for professional development.

I am pretty sure that this isn’t controversial. The fact that people who actually finish MOOCs mostly already have college degrees, and are taking courses for professional development or lifelong learning, is borne out by the numbers again and again. I did some quick searching for blogs and tumblrs including the phrase “Coursera Junkie” or “I took a MOOC” and (once you filter out all of the reporters and education professionals who took their courses for professional reasons) the anecdata also bears this out.

An instructor reporting on her students’ motivation for taking her class:

I am a college graduate, having finished my last undergraduate finals the previous week. I intend to continue learning, to avoid falling into the malaise that often grips people in the years after they “finish” their education – if we accept that education can really be finished.

This person takes a more results-oriented approach to the same kind lifelong learning message, thinking about how to fit this kind of learning in throughout her professional career: “If I can learn the theory from taking MOOCs and apply what I’ve learned through experience, I see no reason why I cannot continue this cycle with programs relevant at the various stages in my career.

Or there’s this take – which recognizes a lot of the pedagogical limitations in existing courses, but says we shouldn’t be so quick to judge – “Because as much as we need to be proponents of engagement and intentional educational practices, we also need to be proponents of lifelong learning and continued education.

Knowing how to go out and get trained on new things when you see you have gaps is an important skill, and one that we’re increasingly expected to do independently.

So here’s where I go beyond the idea that some of the things we’re doing are hard to sustain and into areas where I think the MOOC format (again, don’t care what we call it) has some features worth exploring for their own sake.

Let’s go back to the stories research I mentioned in part 1.  There were situations where our subjects were more optimistic about the one-shot, and those situations are also worth considering.  The most striking category here were classes (usually upper-division) in subjects where there was some research tool or information source that is absolutely essential for professionals in the field.  Librarians teaching one-shots in that context reported that students were interested, engaged and immediately able to understand the connection between the tool and their goals.

This is one reason why I frequently think the best one-shots (or drop-in workshops, for where that’s relevant) are more similar to professional training than they are to classroom teaching.  One thing that struck be about those stories were the extent to which students in those classes were doing the same type of learning they would likely need to do to stay informed in current when they left school, on the job.  When the software they were learning in this library session changed, or is replaced by something else, they’ll be in a workshop or seminar or webinar to learn it on the job. 

And I think we all feel that we’re all expected to be more independent with our professional development training.  With the increased availability of webinars, webcasts, even YouTube videos – we’re expected (and we expect ourselves) to learn how to get the information we need to be successful for ourselves.  

But here’s the thing – I think this is particularly important for our students today.  When I was in college, I went to a school with a large and successful undergraduate business curriculum so even though I wasn’t expecting to go into a traditional job right away, I knew lots of people who were and I know what normal expectations looked like then.  They would talk about getting internships and practica, so they could get an entry level, corporate job where they would 1. get trained on the tools and processes they needed in that specific environment and 2. get their eventual M.B.A. paid for.  The school would talk to students about understanding the theory and concepts of the workplace, more than individual software packages and tools because “they’ll train you on that when you get there.”

Now, I’m not saying that my friends on that track believed that they would work at the same place forever, but I can tell you that the level of investment a company was known for putting into its employees was definitely something they considered when they took a job.  Now, I’m not sure that would be a very sensible way to think about it, because I think investing in employees is getting rarer and rarer. That’s probably not even a controversial statement – that bastion of radicalism, The Wall Street Journal, agrees with me:

To get America’s job engine revving again, companies need to stop pinning so much of the blame on our nation’s education system. They need to drop the idea of finding perfect candidates and look for people who could do the job with a bit of training and practice. 

Or at least, you know, one WSJ blogger agrees with me.

I’ll tell you when i see articles and presentations explaining how “these kids today don’t want the same job for 5 years, they’ll jump ship in a heartbeat” — my first reaction is to think that these kids today are willing to show exactly the same loyalty as they’re being shown, which seems like a pretty rational response to me.   

So, in a context where you can’t rely on your employer to train you, to orient you, to help you stay current and informed – then the person who is going to be successful and powerful is going to be the person who knows how to do those things for themselves.  If MOOCs are going to be part of the professional development landscape, and even if that specific format is not, I think that it makes sense to start thinking about how we can help students learn to find those courses, those workshops and those webinars that will help them get ahead.  

Other things about MOOCs that intrigue me when I think about them as an alternative to oneshots or tutorials

There’s also something specific about the MOOC format, at least as it exists now, that I think fits in here and provides another way to think about research instruction and the practice of research.

One dream I’ve always had is a dream of a college campus environment where peers helping peers, students helping students, is part of the culture.  This has always seemed like a pipe dream, though, because most students don’t seem to consider research something that they would ask for help on, at least from anyone but their instructor — when they’re good at it they don’t think much of it, and don’t think it’s worth sharing, and when they’re inexperienced at it they don’t want anyone to know.  

(Obligatory caveat – obviously not all students, etc. etc.)

But one thing I’ve noticed is that things like discussion forums, and other interactive online spaces are places where people go for help when they need it in the real world – and it’s frequently where they go with software or interface or tool-related questions.  They don’t do it with our tools, though, and I think that’s a gap.  Now MOOCs, as they exist now, aren’t great at the discussion forum part either, I think.  In a fairly pointed critique of the pedagogy of MOOC’s, Ann Kirschner focuses on the lack of peer-to-peer learning, 

If you believe the sage’s advice that we learn much from our teachers and colleagues but most of all from our students, MOOC’s will be far more effective when we are able to learn from one another.

Now, I suspect discussions in MOOCs are way too big for many people to feel comfortable in the forums, and that there are a lot of people like me who just haven’t felt the need to go there.  The idea that there’s a culture where you have some responsibility to participate in discussions is clearly not universal.  But still, the opportunity exists for students to help each other — and for the ones that do go to the forums, I would imagine help from peers happens more quickly and reliably than help from instructors.

This is why the idea of an institution creating and monitoring its own discussion spaces within the MOOC is so intriguing to me.  Think about it, if you had a combination of students taking it (or parts of it) — some from classes where the professors didn’t want to give up class time for a research unit, some from programs that decide to require it, some go-getter (or scared) new students who want to give themselves the best chance to succeed, and maybe even some prospective students who are just. so. excited. to start — and then you created a discussion forum for those students to get together and discuss an then a few of them even ventured out into the larger forums and found people working on similar research from across the country and a few of the faculty members got in and participated and saw the kinds of questions their students had?  Well, that seems like something worth trying for.  

(And even if you didn’t have the capacity or desire to do any of that, you’d still have something more flexible and useful than a full-on process tutorial, and more efficient than the same content in 52 one-shots)

See, Project Information Literacy tells us that other-people information literacy is something we are decidedly NOT teaching (or at least they’re not learning it): 

Employers we interviewed said college hires had more trouble with team communication strategies than with any other single aspect of the research process. Some employers explained that college hires simply overlooked the social capital team members, in particular, could bring to framing research questions and posing problems. Others said these new recruits thought of research as a task that was not conducive to collaboration. Instead, they simply wanted to “go to Point A and then march all alone to Point B.”

I think one-shots, at least the one-shots that are totally tied to a single assignments, create challenges when it comes to transfer — I think students have a hard time thinking about how to transfer the skills that help them meet the specific requirements of their COMM 100 class when they’re faced with different requirements, or even weirder, with non school expectations.  I think we could do a lot more to build a culture of peer support for research.  I’m intrigued by the possibility of a format that might, for some students at least, approach these same ideas in a different way.